lunes, 9 de julio de 2018

EVOLUTION THEORIES

Hi guys:

This first week after the vacation time, we will study Theories that explain the evolution of organisms.

We will use 1/2 sheet (pliego) of white card board, markers and your notes (taken from the readings below).
  
This video is for you to open your mind!!!

Please watch it, we will discus some concepts which are descried here!!!





Here the previous reading where you are going to find information about evolution explanations, so I let you here again.

EVOLUTION READING

And finally, one link about Evolution theories, you will use to develop the exercise of this week.

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/4-main-theories-of-evolution-explained-with-diagram-and-tables-biology/27220

See you at class!!!!

martes, 12 de junio de 2018

VIRAL DISEASES

Hi guys:

Here you have a short description of viral diseases.






Read the following article about Origin of Life page 1 to 16, and take notes in your notebook.

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/122103039/pdf/mod2.pdf

Bring a 1/8 of white card board to design a Brochure about this topic.

Watch this video that will help to you, to understand more...


See you at class!!

martes, 22 de mayo de 2018

LAB ON MICROBIOLOGY

Hi students:

This week we will be working in a Virtual Lab related to the bacteria and substances that affect their growth.

Resultado de imagen para antibiotics mechanisms of action

In the following link you will find the new Lab Report Template. It will be presented as an article.

Read it and ask me questions if you don´t understand something...

LAB REPORT TEMPLATE

And here, the link, for the Vrtual Lab.

VIRTUAL LAB ON MICROBIOLOGY

Finally, in this link you will find information about antibiotics

ANTIBIOTICS DESCRIPTIONS

Bring an USB device to store the file started during the class, and complete it at home at home, if it´s necessary

See you at class!!!






martes, 8 de mayo de 2018

WELCOME TO THE SECOND TERM - MICROBIOLOGY

Hi Students:

Welcome to the Second Term.

This week we will start with some general concepts related to Microbiology.

Print the worksheet in the school's copy office and bring it to the classroom.

Here it is the power Point Presentation I will use in class to explain the concepts.

POWER POINT PRESENTATION ON VIRUSES AND PROKARYOTES

Here a general description of this Science area.


Microbiology (from Greek μῑκροςmīkros, "small"; βίοςbios, "life"; and -λογία-logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular(single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virologyparasitologymycology and bacteriology.
Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification.
Viruses have been variably classified as organisms, as they have been considered either as very simple microorganisms or very complex molecules. Prions, never considered as microorganisms, have been investigated by virologists, however, as the clinical effects traced to them were originally presumed due to chronic viral infections, and virologists took search—discovering "infectious proteins".
The existence of microorganisms was predicted many centuries before they were first observed, for example by the Jains in India and by Marcus Terentius Varro in ancient Rome. The first recorded microscope observation was of the fruiting bodies of moulds, by Robert Hooke in 1666, but the Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher was likely the first to see microbes, which he mentioned observing in milk and putrid material in 1658. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in 1676, using simple microscopes of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur and in medical microbiology Robert Koch.

Watch these videos and take notes in your notebook, to get extra points.





See you at class!!!

sábado, 14 de abril de 2018

IMMUNE SYSTEM

HI guys:

This week we will define and contrast different aspects of the Immune system.

I'll let you copies in the school of the worksheet. (Photocopies' office)

Here´s the image of the Immune system cell's you have to work with in the Dictionary.



Use the following link to open AND CHECK the class the power point presentation we are using at class!!!

PPT ON IMMUNE SYSTEM

And some videos you can use to understand better the Immune system functions



See you at class!!!!

lunes, 2 de abril de 2018

GENETIC DISORDERS

Hi students:

This week yo will design an oral presentation about Genetic disorders. So please, read the following information and follow the class instructions to make it.

  • What is a genetic disease? How is it defined?

 A genetic disease is any disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's genome, the person's entire genetic makeup. The abnormality can range from minuscule to major -- from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a gross chromosome abnormality involving the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Some genetic disorders are inherited from the parents, while other genetic diseases are caused by acquired changes or mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes. Mutations can occur either randomly or due to some environmental exposure.

What are the types of genetic inheritance?

There are a number of different types of genetic inheritance including:
  • Single gene inheritance
  • Multifactorial inheritance
  • Chromosome abnormalities
  • Mitochondrial inheritance

Single gene genetic inheritance

Single gene inheritance, also called Mendelian or monogenetic inheritance. This type of inheritance is caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene. There are more than 6,000 known single-gene disorders, which occur in about 1 out of every 200 births. These disorders are known as monogenetic disorders (disorders of a single gene).
Some examples of monogenetic disorders include:
Single-gene disorders are inherited in recognizable patterns: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Multifactorial genetic inheritance

  •  Multifactorial inheritance, which is also called complex or polygenic inheritance. Multifactorial inheritance disorders are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. For example, different genes that influence breast cancer susceptibility have been found on chromosomes 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 22. Some common chronic diseases are multifactorial disorders.
Examples of multifactorial inheritance include:
Multifactorial inheritance also is associated with heritable traits such as fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, and skin color.

Chromosome abnormalities

Chromosomes, distinct structures made up of DNA and protein, are located in the nucleus of each cell. Because chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. Abnormalities in chromosomes typically occur due to a problem with cell division.
For example, Down syndrome (sometimes referred to as "Down's syndrome") or trisomy 21 is a common disorder that occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21. There are many other chromosome abnormalities including:
Diseases may also occur because of chromosomal translocation in which portions of two chromosomes are exchanged.

Most common disorders

DisorderChromosomeMutation
22q11.2 deletion syndrome22qD
Angelman syndrome15DCP
Canavan disease17p
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease
Color blindnessXP
Cri du chat5D
Cystic fibrosis7qP
Down syndrome21C
Duchenne muscular dystrophyXpD
Familial HypercholesterolemiaP
Haemochromatosis6P
HaemophiliaXP
Klinefelter syndromeXC
Neurofibromatosis17q/22q/?
Phenylketonuria12qP
Polycystic kidney disease16 (PKD1) or 4 (PKD2)P
Prader–Willi syndrome15DCP
Sickle-cell disease11pP
Spinal muscular atrophy5qDP
Tay–Sachs disease15P
Turner syndromeXC

See you at class!!!

sábado, 17 de marzo de 2018

GENETIC VARIABILITY, MUTATIONS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Hi Guys:

Use the following information to check the basis for writing an essay, which is our next exercise.

Writing Your Essay

Write a first draft

Your first draft will help you work out:
  • the structure and framework of your essay
  • how you will answer the question
  • which evidence and examples you will use
  • how your argument will be logically structured.
Your first draft will not be your final essay; think of it as raw material you will refine through editing and redrafting. Once you have a draft, you can work on writing well.

Structure

Structure your essay in the most effective way to communicate your ideas and answer the question.
All essays should include the following structure

Essay paragraphs

A paragraph is a related group of sentences that develops one main idea. Each paragraph in the body of the essay should contain:
  • topic sentence that states the main or controlling idea
  • Supporting sentences to explain and develop the point you’re making
  • Evidence. Most of the time, your point should be supported by some form of evidence from your reading, or by an example drawn from the subject area.
  • Analysis. Don’t just leave the evidence hanging there - analyse and interpret it! Comment on the implication/significance/impact and finish off the paragraph with a critical conclusion you have drawn from the evidence.
  • concluding sentence that restates your point, analyses the evidence or acts as a transition to the next paragraph.
Tips for effective writing
  • Start writing early - the earlier the better. Starting cuts down on anxiety, beats procrastination, and gives you time to develop your ideas.
  • Keep the essay question in mind. Don’t lose track of the question or task. Keep a copy in front of you as you draft and edit and work out your argument.
  • Don’t try to write an essay from beginning to end (especially not in a single sitting). Begin with what you are ready to write - a plan, a few sentences or bullet points. Start with the body and work paragraph by paragraph.
  • Write the introduction and conclusion after the body. Once you know what your essay is about, then write the introduction and conclusion.
  • Use 'signpost' words in your writing. Transition signals can help the reader follow the order and flow of your ideas.
  • Integrate your evidence carefully. Introduce quotations and paraphrases with introductory phrases.
  • Revise your first draft extensively. Make sure the entire essay flows and that the paragraphs are in a logical order.
  • Put the essay aside for a few days. This allows you to consider your essay and edit it with a fresh eye.

Paraphrasing, Summarising and Quoting

Much of the work you produce at university will involve the important ideas, writings and discoveries of experts in your field of study. The work of other writers can provide you with information, evidence and ideas, but must be incorporated into your work carefully. Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising are all different ways of including the works of others in your assignments.
Your lecturers expect you to demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas/concepts in the discipline. Paraphrasing and summarising allow you to develop and demonstrate your understanding and interpretation of a text and to avoid plagiarism.
They are important tools for reshaping information to suit the many varied university writing tasks. They require analytical and writing skills which are crucial to success at university.

What are the differences?

Paraphrasing

  • does not match the source word for word
  • involves putting a passage from a source into your own words
  • changes the words or phrasing of a passage, but retains and fully communicates the original meaning
  • must be attributed to the original source

Summarising

  • does not match the source word for word
  • involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, but including only the main point(s)
  • presents a broad overview, so is usually much shorter than the original text
  • must be attributed to the original source

Quotations

  • match the source word for word
  • are usually a brief segment of the text
  • appear between quotation marks
  • must be attributed to the original source
  • Example of a reference list

    Banerjee, A. and Watson, T.F. (2011) Pickard’s manual of operative dentistry. 9th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
    Davidson, A. (2013) ‘The Saudi Marathon Man’, The New Yorker, 16 April. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-saudi-marathon-man (Accessed: 22 June 2015).
And use this articles to understand the topic.

http://faculty.evansville.edu/de3/b10004/PDFs/13b_Sources_variation.pdf

http://www.uwyo.edu/bio1000skh/lecture35.htm

You can look for more information if you consider as necessary

See you at class!!